Clinical Data

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Clinical Evidence in Support of Freespira

Research has shown that many people with panic attacks and other symptoms of panic disorder (PD) breathe differently than other people; all the time1,2,3 as indicated by their respiration rates and exhaled CO2 levels (together, their breathing pattern). Based on a randomized controlled trial, a protocol was developed to teach/train patients with panic attacks and panic disorder how to adjust their breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 levels. This protocol was then utilized in clinical trials at Stanford University and was successful in reducing panic symptoms, including panic attacks, with 68% of patients panic attack free at 12 months post treatment.4 The Freespira device and protocol is based on this work and is now FDA-cleared and commercially available for treating panic attacks and other symptoms of panic disorder.



1Bass, C, Lelliott, P, Marks, I (1989). Fear talk versus voluntary hyperventilation in agoraphobics and normal: A controlled study. Psychological Medicine, 19(3), 669-676

2Ley, R (1985) Blood, breath and fears: A hyperventilation theory of panic attacks and agoraphobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 5(4), 271-285.

3Papp, LA, Martinez, JM, Klein, DF et al. (1997). Respiratory psychophysiology of panic disorder: Three respiratory challenges in 98 subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1557-1565.

4Meuret AE, et al. Feedback of end-tidal pCO2 as a therapeutic approach for panic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2008;42;560-8.